Friday, October 11, 2019

China harvesting organs from prisoners of conscience, human rights group claims

China harvesting organs from prisoners of conscience, human rights group claims


The group estimated that 'hundreds of thousands' of people have been used to harvest organ

The Chinese government is harvesting organs from religious and ethnic minorities, a human rights organization told the United Nations Human Rights Council in Geneva on Tuesday.
The China Tribunal, which calls itself an “independent, international people’s tribunal” that investigates allegations of organ harvesting in the country, is led by Sir Geoffrey Nice QC. The tribunal said they found evidence that China is continuing to forcibly collect organs from political and religious prisoners, despite saying they stopped the practice four years ago.
“Forced organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience, including the religious minorities of Falun Gong and Uighurs, has been committed for years throughout China on a significant scale, and that it continues today,” said Hamid Sabi, a lawyer for the China Tribunal speaking at the UN meeting.
The tribunal estimated that “hundreds of thousands” of people have been used to harvest organs, including hearts. This constitutes crimes against humanity, said Sabi, and is equivalent to genocide.
“Victim for victim and death for death, cutting out the hearts and other organs from living, blameless, harmless, peaceable people constitutes one of the worst mass atrocities of this century,” he added.
Although organ donation and transplantation is “a scientific and social triumph,” Sadi said that China’s practice of killing the donor is a crime.
“It is the legal obligation of UN Member States and the duty of this council to address this criminal conduct,” he said.
China has admitted in the past that it would regularly take the organs of prisoners on death row and use them in transplants, but said they stopped in January 2015. According to the China Tribunal, it is unlikely to be true. The tribunal says there has been an “explosion” of transplants in China over the last two decades, as well as an increase of “transplant tourists” who travel to China to purchase an organ.
These numbers “suggest a larger supply of organs than could be sourced from executed criminals alone,” says the China Tribunal’s website. This data, coupled with reports from prisoners, leads the Tribunal to conclude that “prisoners of conscience,” who have been detained for no reason other than their faith or ethnic group, are being killed in order to supply organs for the country’s organ trafficking industry.
Groups detained en masse in China include Uighur Muslims, Tibetans, practitioners of Falun Gong, and people who worship at underground “home churches” that are not recognized by the government.
On Tuesday, Deputy Secretary of State John Sullivan spoke at the UN General Assembly, and demanded an investigation into the alleged human rights abuses in the province of Xinjiang. Xinjiang is home to most of the country’s Uighur population.
“The UN must seek the immediate unhindered, and unmonitored access to Xinjiang for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights,” said Sullivan. “The United Nations, including its member states, have a responsibility to stand up for the human rights of people everywhere, including Muslims in Xinjiang.”
Sullivan added that it is imperative that the UN work to continue to monitor China for human rights abuses, especially “the repression of religious freedom and belief.”
An estimated 1 million Uighurs, members of a Muslim ethnoreligious group, have been detained in re-education camps in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, a region in China’s northwest that is roughly the size of Iran.
Inside the camps they are reportedly subjected to forced labor, torture, and political indoctrination. Outside the camps, Uighurs are monitored by pervasive police forces and facial recognition technology.
The Chinese government has said reports on the camps by Western governments and media are unfounded, claiming they are vocational training centers and that it is combating extremism.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Final Days Of Muhammad [S]

Muhammad ﷺ

Umar Ibn Al-Khattab RA

Short Biography of Second Caliph Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (R.A.)

Short Biography of Second Caliph Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (R.A.)

Praise be to Allah, and prayers and peace be upon the Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.) and his sanctified and dedicated Companions (R.A.), as well as all their followers till the Day of Judgment.
The life of Al Farooq Umar ibn Al-Khattab (R.A.) is a shining page of Islamic history, which outshines and supersedes all other histories. The history of all nations put together does not contain even a part of what his life contained of noble conduct, glory, sincerity, jihad, and calling others for the sake of Allah.

His Ancestry and Attributes:
His full name is Umar ibn Al-Khattab ibn Nufayl ibn Abdul- Uzza.  He was known as Abu Hafs and earned the nickname of Al Farooq (the Criterion) because he showed his Islam openly in Makkah and through him Allah distinguished between disbelief and faith.  He was born in 583 AC (Cristian Era), thirteen years after Amul-Fil (the year of the Elephant). His father was Al-Khattab ibn Nufayl, and his grandfather Nufayl was one of those whom Quraish Tribe used to refer for judgment. His mother was Hantamah bint Hashim bin Al Mugheerah.

His Physical Appearance:
With regard to his physical characteristics, he was white with a reddish complexion. He was muscular, tall, solid and bald. He was very strong, not weak or puny. When he walked, he walked quickly, when he spoke, he spoke clearly, and when he stuck, he caused pain.

His early Life in the Pre-Islamic Society:
Umar spent half of his life in the pre-Islamic society (Jahiliyah), and grew up like his peers of Quraish, except that he has an advantage over them in that he was one of those who had learned to read, of whom there were very few. He bore responsibility at an early age, and had a very harsh upbringing in which he knew no type of luxury or manifestation of wealth. His father Al-Khattab forced him to tend his camels.  His father's harsh treatment had a negative effect on Umar which he remembered all his life.
From his early youth he also excelled in many kinds of sports, such as wrestling, riding and horsemanship. He enjoyed and narrated poetry, and he was interested in the history and affaires of his people.  He was keen to attend the great fairs of the Arabs such as Ukaz, Mijannah and Dhu al-Majaz, where he would make the most of the opportunity to engage in trade and learn the history of the Arabs, and the battles and contests that had taken place among the tribes. Besides, he engaged in trade and profited, which made him one of the rich men of Makkah. He became acquainted with many people in the countries that he visited for the purpose of trade. He travelled to Syria in the summer and Yemen in the winter. Thus, he occupied a prominent position in Makkan society during the pre-Islamic era.
Umar (R.A.) was wise, eloquent, well spoken, strong, tolerant, noble, persuasive and clear of speech, which made him qualified to be an ambassador for Quraish, to speak up for them before the other tribes. Ibn Al-Jawzi said:
“The role of ambassador fell to Umar ibn Al-Khattab. If there was a war between Quraish and another tribe, they would send him as an ambassador, and if another tribe was boasting against them, they would send him to respond in kind, and they were pleased with him.”
Before converting to Islam, Umar (R.A.) opposed Islam and he even threatened to kill Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W). He was adamant and cruel in opposing Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) and very prominent in persecuting Muslims.
Umar lived during the pre-Islamic era and knew it inside out. He knew its true nature, its customs and traditions, and he defended it with all the power he possessed. Therefore, when he entered Islam, he understood its beauty and true nature, and he recognized the great difference between guidance and misguidance, disbelief and faith, truth and falsehood, and he spoke his famous words:
" The bonds of Islam will be undone one by one when there will be a generation brought up in Islam who do not know what ignorance is.”

His Conversion to Islam:
When a small group of Muslims migrated to Abyssinia, Umar (R.A.) became worried about the future unity of the Quraish and decided to have Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.) assassinated. On his way to murder Prophet (S.A.W.), Umar met his best friend Nuaim bin Abdullah (R.A.) who had secretly converted to Islam but had not told Umar. He told Umar (R.A.) to inquire about his own house where his sister and her husband had converted to Islam. Upon arriving at her house, Umar found his sister and brother-in-law Saeed bin Zaid (R.A.) reciting the verses of the Quran from SurahTaha (20th Surah of Quran). He started quarreling with his brother-in-law. When his sister came to rescue her husband, he also started quarreling with her. Yet still they kept on saying: "you may kill us but we will not give up Islam". Upon hearing these words, Umar slapped his sister so hard that she fell to the ground bleeding from her mouth. When he saw what he did to his sister, he calmed down out of guilt and asked his sister to give him what she was reciting. His sister replied in the negative and said "You are unclean, and no unclean person can touch the Scripture."
The first ray of the light of faith that touched his heart came on when he saw the women of Quraish leaving their homeland and travelling to a distant land because of the persecution that they were facing from Umar (R.A.) and other unbelievers. His conscious was moved and he felt remorse and pity for them, and he spoke kind words to them which they had never expected to hear from his person beforehand.
Umm Abdullah bint Hantamh said:
“When we were migrating to Abyssinia, Umar, who used to persecute us mercilessly, came and stood over and said to me: are you leaving? I said: Yes, for you have persecuted us and oppressed us, and by Allah we are going out in the land of Allah until Allah grants us a way out.”
Then Umar said:
“May Allah be with you. And I saw kindness that I had never seen before.”
Umar was moved by this woman's attitude and he felt distressed. How much suffering the followers of this new religion were putting up with, but despite that they were standing firm. What was the secret beyond this extraordinary strength? He felt sad and his heart was filled with pain. Shortly after this incident, Umar (R.A.) became Muslim as a result of the prayers of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.), which was the main reason for his acceptance of Islam. The Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.) had prayed for him saying:
"O Allah honor Islam through Abu Jahl bin Hisham or through Umar bin Al-Khattab."
Umar (R.A.) came the next day to the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) and accepted Islam.
(Tirmidhi: 3683)
Umar became Muslim in 616 AD, one year after the Migration to Abyssinia, when he was twenty-seven years old. He accepted Islam three days after Hamzah (R.A.), the Prophet’s uncle. At that time the Muslims numbered thirty-nine. Umar (R.A.) said:
"I remember that when I became Muslim, there were just thirty-nine men with the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.), and I brought the number to forty."
Thus, Allah caused His religion to prevail and grant glory to Islam.
Abdullah Ibn Masood (R.A.) said:
"We felt a sense of pride when Umar became Muslim, for we could not circumambulate the Holy Mosque and pray, until Umar became Muslim. When he became Muslim, he fought them until they sent us free. Then we prayed and circumambulated the Kaaba."
He also said:
"Umar's becoming a Muslim was a victory, his migration was help, and his caliphate was a mercy. We could not pray or circumambulate the House until Umar became Muslim. When he became Muslim, he fought the unbelievers until they left us alone and let us pray."

His Migration to Madinah:
When Umar (R.A.) decided migrate to Madinah, he insisted on doing so openly. Ibn Abbas (R.A.) said:
"Ali bin Abi Talib said to me: 'I do not know of any of the migrants who did not migrate in secret, except Umar ibn Al-Khattab. When he decided to migrate, he put on his sword, put his bow over his shoulder, picked up his arrows and carried his stick. He went out to the Kaaba, where a number of Quraish were gathered in its courtyard and circumambulated the House seven times, at a leisurely pace. Then he went to the Maqam [Place or the stone on which Ibrahim (A.S.) stood while he was building the Kaaba] and prayed tranquilly. Then he went to the circles of people, one by one, and said to them, 'May your faces become ugly! Allah will only rub theses noses in the dust. Whoever wants his mother to be bereft of him and his children to become orphans and his wife to become a widow, let him meet me behind this valley.’ Ali said, 'No one followed him except a few of those who were weak and oppressed. He taught them and told them about Islam, then he went on his way.'

Revelation of the Quran Agreeing with His Opinion:
Narrated Anas: that Umar (R.A.) said, "I had the same idea as Allah in three things: I said, 'O Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.), I wish that you take the station (Maqam) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer.' So Allah revealed: "And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim [or the stone on which Ibrahim stood while he was building the Kaaba] as a place of prayer." (Surah Al-Baqarah 2:125)
He also said,
'O Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.), Good and bad people enter upon your wives, I wish that you order them to cover themselves with veils.' So the verses of Al-Hijab (i.e. veiling of the women) were revealed. The wives of the Prophet (S.A.W.) gathered against him and I said to them: 'It may be If he divorced you (all) that his Lord will give him instead of you, wives better than you.' Thereupon Allah revealed a verse with similar wordings. (Surah At-Tahrim 66:5)(Bukhari: 4483).
His Title “Al-Farooq”:
Umar was an expert jurist and is best known for his justice, in the same way for Muslims and non-Muslims. This value earned him the title of ‘Al- Farooq’ (the one who distinguishes between wright and wrong).

His Asceticism:
Umar (R.A.) was most humble to Allah and led an austere life. His food was very coarse and he would patch his cloth with leather.  He used to carry a water skin on his shoulders in spite of his great esteem.  He used to laugh little and never joked with anyone.  Engraved on his ring was: "Death is sufficient as an admonition, O' Umar."
When he was appointed as the Caliph, he said: "Nothing is permissible (for me) from the treasury more than two clothes, one for the cold season and the other for the dry season. The sustenance of my family will be the equivalent of an average man of Quraish and not the rich amongst them, for I am just an ordinary man among the Muslims (i.e. nothing special about me)."
Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufian (R.A.) said: "As for Abu Bakr (R.A.), he never desired the world and the world did not desire him. As for Umar, the world desired him but he never desired the world. As for us, we have been soiled by the world inside-out."
At the time of drought, Umar (R.A.) ate bread and oil until his skin turned pale dark and he would say: "What a bad leader I am if I eat my fill and the people go hungry."

His Appointment as Caliph and Successor of Abu Bakr (R.A.):
When Abu Bakr's (R.A.) sickness grew intense, the people gathered around him and he said:
"There has befallen me what you see and I think I am going to die soon. Allah has freed you from your oath of alliance to me, and your oath is no longer binding. Your affairs are in your hands, so appoint over you whomever you like. If you appoint someone whilst I am still alive, I think it is less likely that you will become divided after I am gone."
The Companions consulted one another, each of them trying to refuse the position of Caliph for himself and seeking it for his brother whom he thought was fit and qualified for it. Hence they came back to him and said:
"We have decided to leave it to you, O' Successor of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.)."
He said: "Give me time so that I may choose someone who will be most pleasing to Allah, most protective of His religion and His slaves.”
So he looked out over the people and said to them:
"Do you accept the one whom I appoint as your leader? For by Allah I have tried to appoint the best; I have not appointed a relative. I have appointed as your leader Umar ibn Al-Khattab, so listen to him and obey."
Companions said: "We will listen and obey."
Then Abu Bakr (R.A.) turned in supplicating to Allah, expressing his concern to his Lord. He said:
"I have appointed him not by the command of Your Prophet, seeking nothing but what is in their best interests. I fear sedition for them and I have thought long and hard about the matter. I have appointed over them the best of them and the one who is keenest to lead them in the right way. Now here I am with Your decree about to be fulfilled. Take care of them after I am gone for they are Your salves."
Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (R.A.) started to act as the caliph of the Muslims as soon as Abu Bakr (R.A.) passed away.
The above conversation clearly shows that Abu Bakr's (R.A.) nomination of Umar ibn Al- Khattab (R.A.) as caliph was based on the consent of the majority of the Companions (R.A.). Hence, we see that the appointment of Umar (R.A.) was done in accordance with the soundest and fair principles of Consultation (Shura). Hence, Umar (R.A.) succeeded Abu Bakr (R.A.) as a second Caliph on Monday, 22nd of Jumada Al-Akhirah, 13th AH (August 23rd, 634 AD).

His Reign as Caliph:
He was the first Caliph to be nominated as "Prince of the Believers".  His achievements, during his reign as Caliph, are so many and cannot be mentioned in this article. However, following are some highlights of his accomplishments during the tenure of his ‘Khilafat’:
1.He is the one who founded the Lunar Calendar (Hijri Year i-e according to the date of Prophet Mohammad's (S.A.W.) migration to Medinah).
2. In his era Islam gained a great position, as the Islamic Empire expanded at an unprecedented rate ruling the whole Iraq, Egypt, Libya, Tripoli, Persia, Khurassan, Eastern Anatolia, South Armenian and Sajistan. Jerusalem (first Qiblah) was conquered during his reign alongwith the whole Sassanid Persian Empire and two thirds of the Eastern Roman Empire.
3. Introduction and implementation of different Political and civil administration jobs such as Chief Secretary (Khatib), Military Secretary (Khatib ud Diwan), Revenue Collector (Sahib ul Kharaj), Police Chief (Sahib ul Ahdath), Treasury Officer (Sahib Bait-ul-Maal) and many other official posts.
4. Umar (R.A.) was the first to establish a special department for the investigation of complaints against the officers of the State.
5. Umar (R.A.) was the first to introduce the public ministry system, where the records of officials and soldiers were kept. He was also the first person ever to appoint police forces to keep civil order. Another important aspect of Umar's (R.A.) rule was that he banned any of his governors/officials from engaging in trade or any sort of business dealings whilst being in a position of power.

His Martyrdom:
Imam ibn Kathir said that when Umar (R.A.) concluded his rites of Hajj in 23 Hijri, he prayed and asked Allah to take him to Himself and to grant him martyrdom in the land of the Prophet (S.A.W.) just as it is narrated by Zaid bin Aslam: Umar (R.A.) said:
“Oh Allah! I ask you for martyrdom in Your cause and death in the land of Your Messenger (S.A.W.)."  (Bukhari: 1890)
Allah indeed kind to whom He wishes. It happened that Abu Lulu Al- Fayruz, the Magian (the fire worshiper) and nonbeliever and had a roman origin, stabbed Umar (R.A.) while he was in the Fajr Salah (dawn prayer) with a dagger of two blades. He stabbed him three times, one of these below the naval. Hence, Umar (R.A.) fell down bleeding copiously.
He asked Abdul Rahman bin Awf (R.A.) to replace him to conclude the prayer. Abu Lulu withdrew with his dagger but kept stabbing whoever came his way in the mosque until he stabbed thirteen people out of which six died as a result of their injuries. Abdullah bin Awf (R.A.) threw his robe on him and when he realized that he was going to be overpowered, Abu Lulu stabbed himself to death (may Allah's curse be upon him).
Umar (R.A.), was taken to his house with blood gushing out from his wound.  All of these occurred before sunrise.
Then Umar asked: "Who killed me?"
His companions replied, "Abu Lulu, the Magian."
Then Umar was delighted and said: "Praise be to Allah who Has not afflicted me from the hands of someone who subscribes to monotheism. I used to forbid you from sending to us any uncouth infidel but you disobeyed me."
Then he said: "Call for my brothers."
They asked: "Who?"
Umar (R.A.) said: "Uthman, Ali, Talhah, Zubair, Abdul Rahman bin Awf, and Sad bin Abi Waqas."
When they arrived, Umar (R.A.) said:
“I have looked into the affairs of the Muslims and I found you six the foremost and the smart. I do not see the authority fitting for anyone except one of you. If you are upright, then the affair of the people will be upright. If there is disagreement, it is because you had disagreed (amongst yourselves)." His blood was mopped for him, and he said: "Consult for three days, and in the meantime, Suhayb Ar-Rumi should lead the people in prayer." They asked: "Who should we consult with, O' Prince of believers?" He replied: "Consult with the Immigrants and the Supporters as well as the commanders of the armies."
He requested for a drink of milk. When he drank it, the whiteness of the milk could be seen oozing out from his wounds and it was clear for them that he would die. He said:
"The time is now (i.e. of death). If I were to have the entire world, I would have given it out to ransom myself from the horror of the point of departure."
Then, his soul was taken. This happened on 26 Dhul Hijjah, 23 AH (Wednesday 7th of November 644 AD). He was sixty-three years old and his era extended for ten years.
As per Umar's (R.A.) will, he was buried, with the permission of Aishah (R.A.), alongside Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.) and caliph Abu Bakr (R.A.) in Masjid Al-Nabawi.

Sayings of Umar (R.A.) that Became Well Known Wisdom:
Umar (R.A.) said: "Whoever concealed his secrets will have the choice (of telling whomever he wants to tell), but whoever speaks or acts in a specious manner should not blame anyone who thinks badly of him. Do not think badly of a word spoken by your brother (fellow) when you can still find good ways to interpret it. Think positively of your brother until you are certain that he is not like that. Do not swear a great deal lest Allah humiliate you. There is no better reward for one who disobeys Allah concerning you that your obeying Allah concerning him. You should seek sincere friends and maintain good relations with them, for they are a pleasure at times of ease and a support at times of hardship."
Whenever Umar (R.A.) sent forth an army he would advise them to fear Allah. Then he would say when the standard of war is hoisted:
“In the name of Allah and upon the help of Allah, proceed with the backing of Allah and His support. Adhere to truth and patience. Fight in the cause of Allah against those who disbelieve in Allah and do not disobey, for Allah does not like the disobedient. Do not be coward at the time of meeting (the enemy) and do not mutilate when you have the upper hand and do not be immoderate when you conquer. Do not argue during fighting. Do not kill women, the aging, and the children. Avoid killing them when two enemies meet and in the heat of attack (in front of your enemy). Do not go to the extreme with regard to spoils of war, distance (your intention for) the sacred war –Jihad- from seeking with it worldly honors, and rejoice at the profit that you have gained from the transaction you have entered. That is indeed the great success.

Peace be upon Umar ibn Al-Khattab (R.A.) for eternity.

Book Name                 Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him)
Managed by                Kamal Ahmad
Translated by              Manal Qutub
From the Series of     Men and Women around Muhammad (S.A.W.)


Fire in Liberia Islamic school kills at least 27 children

Fire in Liberia Islamic school kills at least 27 children

The kids were learning Quran when the fire broke out in Monrovia’s Islamic school

Monday, September 9, 2019

Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.) Biography

Short Biography of Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A)

His Lineage and Title:
Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.), popularly known as Abu Bakr, is the first Caliph after the Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.). His full name is Abdullah bin Abu Quhafah Uthman bin Aamer Al Qurashi Al Taymi. His lineage joins with that of the Prophet (S.A.W.) six generations before himself, in Murrah Ben Kaab.
Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.) was born in Makkah in the year 573 AD (Christian Era), two years and some months after the birth of the Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.). Abu Bakr (R.A.) was brought up within his decent good parents, thus he gained a considerable self-esteem and noble status. His father Uthman Abu Quhafah accepted Islam on the Day of Victory in Makkah. His mother Salma bint Sakhar, also known as Umm Al Khair, embraced Islam early, and migrated to Madinah.

His physical appearance:
Abu Bakr (R.A.) was a slim white man with slight shoulders, thin face, sunken eyes, protruding forehead and the bases of his fingers were hairless. [As his daughter Aisha (R.A.) describe the physical appearance of her father Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.)]

His early Life:
Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.) spent his early childhood, like other Arab children of the time, among the Bedouins. In his early years, he played with the camel calves and goats, and his love for camels earned him the nickname "Abu Bakr", meaning ‘the father of the camel's calf.’
In 591 AD at the age of 18, Abu Bakr (R.A.) went into trade and adopted the profession of cloth merchant, which was his family's business. He started his business with the capital of forty thousand dirhams. In the coming years Abu Bakr (R.A.) traveled extensively with caravans (camel train, series of camels carrying passengers from one place to another). Business trips took him to Yemen, Syria, and many other countries in the current Middle East. His business flourished and though his father was still alive, Abu Bakr (R.A.) came to be recognized as chief of his tribe because of his many qualities such as knowledge about the history of Arabs tribes (genealogical knowledge), politics, trade/business, his kindness and many other.
Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.) was remarkably virtuous. Even before Islam, he had made intoxicants forbidden for himself. Once a person asked him:
“Have you ever drank intoxicant?”
Abu Bakr (R.A.) replied:
“I seek refuge in Allah, I never did it.”
Person asked again:
He said:
“I maintain my honor and preserve my dignity.”
Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.) has never prostrated to idols. Once in a gathering of the Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.) and his Sahaba (Companions), Abu Bakr (R.A.) said:
"I have never prostrated to an idol. As I approached adulthood, my father led me to a chamber of idols (Kaaba). His father said: “These are your grand elevated gods.” After saying this, my father departed to attend to some other business. I advanced to an idol and said: “I am hungry can you feed me?” It didn't answer. I said: “I am in need of beautiful clothes; bestow them on me.”  It didn't answer. I threw off a rock upon it, and it fell down." Thereafter, Abu Bakr (R.A.) never went to the chamber of idols in Kaaba to pray to the idols."
Even before Islam, Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.) obtained great values, high ethics, and good behaviors within the ignorant society. He was well-known among the people in Makkah as a leader over the others in morality and values. Thus, he had never been discarded or criticized for any deficiency among Quraish tribe. 

His Acceptance of Islam:
Abu Bakr Siddq (R.A.) has accepted Islam after a long search for the true religion. In fact, Abu Bakr (R.A.) was the first man to respond and believe in Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.). His immediate acceptance for Islam was a consequence of the steadfast friendship with the Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.). Abu Bakr (R.A.) knew the Prophet (S.A.W.) as a truthful, honest, and noble person, that he has never been untruthful to people, so how he would be untruthful to Allah?
When Abu Bakr (R.A.) embraced Islam, the Prophet (S.A.W.) was overjoyed, as Abu Bakr (R.A.) was a source of triumph for Islam, due to his intimacy with Quraish tribe and his noble character that Allah Has exalted him.
In fact, Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.) had always doubted the validity of idolatry and had very little enthusiasm for worshipping idols. So when he accepted Islam, he did his best to attract other people to it. Soon Uthman bin Affan (R.A.), Abdul-Rahman bin Awf (R.A.), Talhah bin Ubaydillah (R.A.), Saad bin Abi Waqqas (R.A.), Al-Zubair bin Al-Awwam (R.A.) and Abu Ubaydah bin AI-Jarrah (R.A.) all flocked to join Mohammad (S.A.W.). The Prophet (S.A.W.) once said:
''Abu Bakr was the only person who accepted Islam immediately, without suspicion”.
As the number of Muslims rose to thirty-nine, Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.) asked the Prophet's (S.A.W.) permission to call the people openly to Islam. After persisting in this request, the Prophet (S.A.W.)  gave his consent and they all went to the Makkah’s Holy Mosque (Kaaba) for preaching. Abu Bakr (R.A.) delivered a sermon which was the first ever in the annals of Islam. When the unbelievers among the Quraish heard it, they fell upon Abu Bakr (R.A.) and the Muslims from all sides. Abu Bakr (R.A.) was beaten so severely until he fell unconscious and was near death. When he at last regained consciousness, he immediately enquired: “How is the Prophet?”  In spite of all his pain and injuries, his first thought was only for the Prophet (S.A.W.), his love for him was so unbounded that he considered himself with nothing but the Prophet's (S.A.W.) well-being.
His wife Qutaylah did not accept Islam and he divorced her. His other wife, Um Ruman, became a Muslim. All his children, except Abul Rehman, accepted Islam.

His Title “As-Siddiq” (The Truthful):
As-Siddiq, the most well-known of Abu Bakr's (R.A.) titles, comes from the word ‘Sidq’ which means truthfulness. Therefore, the word As-Siddiq means a person who is constantly truthful or who constantly believes in the truthfulness of something or someone. In Abu Bakr's (R.A.) case, in the truthfulness of the Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.). The title 'As-Siddiq' was given to Abu Bakr (R.A.) by none other than the Prophet (S.A.W.).

Migration to Madinah:
When the Prophet (S.A.W.) and his Companions (Sahaba) suffered immensely from the harm of Quraish, the Prophet (S.A.W.) commanded his Companions to migrate to Madinah. As narrated by Aishah (R.A.) that the Prophet (S.A.W.) said to the Muslims:
"I have had a vision in which I have been shown the place to which you will migrate, a land of palm trees between two mountains and two stony tract of land." Thus some of the Muslims migrated to Madinah, and most of those who had left before for Abyssinia (Ethiopia) returned to Madinah. Abu Bakr prepared to leave for Madinah also but the Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.) said: "Wait a little while for I hope to be permitted to migrate as well." Abu Bakr said: “Do you expect so? May my parents be redeemed for you.” The Prophet (S.A.W.) said: "Yes." So Abu Bakr did not migrate in order to remain with the messenger of Allah (S.A.W.). He prepared two camels and fled them well for four months to use them in their long journey. (Bukhari: 3905)
The people of Makkah have noticed that the Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.) has got adherents and supporters in another place and they have noticed the migration of the Prophet's (S.A.W.) Companions. Fearing the departure of the Prophet (S.A.W.) from Makkah, they planned to kill him. Hence, the angel Gabriel informed Prophet (S.A.W.) to leave Makkah.
While the Prophet's (S.A.W.) house was besieged by a group of swordsmen from all the tribes of Makkah, he left his cousin, Ali bin Abi Talib (R.A.), in his bed, slipped unnoticed from the house, and departed with Abu Bakr (R.A.) in the early hours of the morning. Their journey from Makkah to Madinah was full of adventure. As soon as the besieging swordsmen discovered that they were tricked, they went in search of the Prophet (S.A.W.) and Abu Bakr (R.A.). A public prize of a hundred camels was offered to anyone who might find them. However, it happened that when they hid in a cave named Thaur (where they spent three nights), a spider spun its web at the opening of the cave, and a pigeon built its nest there. The swordsmen followed their tracks until they reached their hiding place, but, seeing the web and the early hours of the morning, they went home, telling everyone that further pursuit was fruitless.
Abu Bakr (R.A.) said:
“I was with the Prophet (S.A.W.) in the Cave and when I raised my head I saw the feet of the people (he means the infidels), I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, if any of them should look under his feet, he would see us.” The Prophet (S.A.W.) Said: "O Abu Bakr! What do you think of two persons the third of them is Allah?"
The incident is described in the Al-Quran as follows:
"If you do not aid the Prophet - Allah has already aided him when those who disbelieved had driven him out [of Makkah] as one of two, when they were in the cave and he said to his companion, "Do not grieve; indeed, Allah is with us." (Surah al-Tawba: 9:40)

His role in Battles of Badr and Uhud:
Badr was the first large-scale engagement between the Muslims and the non-believers of Makkah which took place on Badr, near Madinah, on 17th Ramadan, 2 AH (March 13th, 624 AD).
In the Battle of Badr, Abu Bakr (R.A.) was one of the guards of Prophet’s (S.A.W.) tent and was entrusted with his safety. It is reported by Ibn Asaker that Abdul Rahman, the son of Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.), was with the unbelievers on the Day of Badr. When he became a Muslim, he said to his father:
“You were exposed to me on the Day of Badr and I turned away from you, I did not kill you.”
Abu Bakr (R.A.) said:
“As for me, if you were exposed to me, I would not have turned away from you.”
In this situation, the greatness of the faith of Abu Bakr (R.A.), is exemplified by the depth of his truthfulness and sincerity in preferring the love of Allah and His Messenger (S.A.W.) above everything else.
Abu Bakr (R.A.) truly applied the guidelines affirmed in the Holy Quran and Hadith.
Allah the Great and the Almighty Has Said in Quran:
“You will not find a people who believe in Allah and the Last Day having affection for those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, even if they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred.” (Surah Al-Mujaadila: 58:22).
The Prophet (S.A.W.) said:
" None of you truly believes until I am more beloved to him than his child, his father and all the people." (Ibn Mjah: 67)
Abu Bakr (R.A.) would never love his disbelieving son, due to his faithfulness to Allah and his Messenger (S.A.W.).
In the battle of Uhud, which took place the following year after Badr, the disbelievers won the battle because the archers left their places on the top of the mountain of Uhud. Only a dozen people stayed with the Prophet (S.A.W.) on this occasion, one of whom was the staunch believer Abu Bakr (R.A.).

His spending for Allah’s sake:
Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) once said about Abu Bakr (R.A.):
"No one has helped me without reciprocating it, except for Abu Bakr, who has given me help, which Allah will reciprocate to him on the Day of Resurrection. No one's property has benefited me to the extent of Abu Bakr's. And if I were to take a Khalil (friend), then I would have taken Abu Bakr as a Khalil, and indeed your companion is Allah's Khalil." (Tirmidhi: 3661)
Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (R.A.) said:
“The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) commanded us one day to give sadaqah (charity). At that time, I had some property. I said: Today I shall surpass Abu Bakr if I surpass him any day. I, therefore, brought half my property. The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) asked: What did you leave for your family? I replied: The same amount. Abu Bakr brought all that he had with him. The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) asked him: What did you leave for your family? He replied: I left Allah and His Apostle for them. I said: I shall never compete you in anything.'” (Abu-Dawud: 1678)
Abu Bakr (R.A.) had also liberated many slaves as he felt compassion for them. As per sources, he purchased and freed eight slaves, four men and four women, by paying forty thousand dinars for their freedom. Bilal bin Ribah (R.A.), one of the most loyal and trusted Companion of Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.), was one of the salves that Abu Bakr (R.A.) freed from slavery.

The Day the Prophet Died:
When the Prophet (S.A.W.) died in 11 AH (632 AD), many people, among whom was Umar bin Khattab (R.A.), refused to believe he had died. But Abu Bakr (R.A.), steadfast as usual, addressed the bewildered multitude and convinced them that Mohammad (S.A.W.) was no more and there was no reason why they should not acknowledge his death.
It is reported from Ibn Abbas (R.A.) that when the Prophet (S.A.W.) died, Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.) went out while Umar (R.A.) was speaking to the people. Abu Bakr (R.A.) said to him: 'Sit down O Umar,' twice, but Umar refused to sit.
Abu Bakr (R.A.) said:
“To proceed, if anyone amongst you used to worship Mohammad (S.A.W.), then Mohammad (S.A.W.) is dead, but if you used to worship Allah, then Allah is Alive and shall never die.”
(Then he recited the following aya of Quran):
“Mohammad is not but a messenger. [Other] messengers have passed on before him. So if he was to die or be killed, would you turn back on your heels [to unbelief]? And he who turns back on his heels will never harm Allah at all; but Allah will reward the grateful.” (Surah Al-Imran: 3:144)
Ibn Abbas (R.A.) said:
"By Allah, it was as if the people never knew that Allah Had revealed this verse before, till Abu Bakr recited it and all the people took it from him, and I heard everybody reciting it."
Umar bin Khattab (R.A.) said:
“my legs could not support me and I fell down at the very moment of hearing him reciting it, declaring that the Prophet (S.A.W.) had died.”
(Bukhari: 4452, 4453)

First Caliph in Islam:
After the death of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.), Abu Bakr (R.A.) was unanimously accepted caliph. However, he had faced many crises after becoming caliph.
Imam Al-Dhahabi said:
“When the news of the death of the Prophet (S.A.W.) spread, many groups of people among the Arabs apostatized from Islam. They objected to pay the almsgiving (Zakat). Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.) decided to fight them. Umar and others impressed upon him to refrain from fighting them, but Abu Bakr said: 'By Allah, if they refuse to pay a rope which they used to pay at the time of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.), I will fight them for withholding it."
Umar (R.A.) insisted:
“How can you fight with these people although the Prophet (S.A.W.) said: "I have been ordered by Allah to fight the people till they say: None has the right to be worshiped but Allah, and whoever said it then he will save his life and property from me except on trespass the law, and his accounts will be with Allah."
Abu Bakr (R.A.), reiterated:
“By Allah! I will fight those who differentiate between the prayer and almsgiving (Zakat), for almsgiving (Zakat) is a compulsory right to be taken from the property (according to Allah's orders).”
Then Umar (R.A.) said:
“By Allah, it was nothing, but Allah brought relief to Abu Bakr toward the decision (to fight) and I came to know that this decision was right.”
Abu Bakr (R.A.) raised the banner of war on all fronts. The desert never witnessed, even in the lifetime of the Prophet (S.A.W.) himself, such grinding battles as those that occurred. But the men that were trained by Mohammad (S.A.W.) upon the recognition of the truth and total submission to it were sincere to Allah in their deeds. They dealt idolatry a blow that broke its spine and squeezed its soul until it faded into oblivion. They equally drove away the Romans from the boarders. They broke the spine of the apostates. Some of them came back into the fold of Islam and others perished far estranged from it. In no more than a few years, Islam triumphed and was seen and heard (far and wide) while other religions were on the brink of extinction.

Compilation of the Holy Quran:
One of the greatest achievements Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.) rendered to Islam was the compilation of the Holy Quran. At that time, there were hundreds of memorizers who had memorized the entire Quran among the Companions during the life time of the Prophet (S.A.W.), but the Holy Quran had never been complied in a book-form, although its memorization continued after the death of the Prophet (S.A.W.). However, numbers of those memorizers had been martyred in the various battles that had ensued after the Prophet's (S.A.W.) passing. Consequently, it occurred to Umar (R.A.) that steps should be taken to preserve the Quran intact in its original form, against any kind of risk, and he saw that it was not prudent to depend exclusively upon those who had committed its memory to heart. Therefore, he urged Abu Bakr (R.A.) to have it written down in the form of a book. Abu Bakr (R.A.) at first hesitated because this had not been done by the Prophet (S.A.W.) himself. However, after some debate on the subject, he agreed and appointed Zaid ibn Thabit (R.A.) for this work, Zaid (R.A.) hesitated at the thought of undertaking such a momentous task, but he later took heart and began the work. Zaid (R.A.) was the most capable person to be charged with this because he had acted as an amanuensis to the Prophet (S.A.W.), and one of the Companions, who had learnt the Quran directly from him.
After Zaid (R.A.) accomplished the tedious task and had organized the Quran into one book, he submitted the precious collection to Abu Bakr (R.A.), who kept it in his possession until the end of his life. During Umar's (R.A.) caliphate, it was placed in the custody of Umar's daughter, Hafsah (R.A.), who was also the Prophet's (S.A.W.) wife. Finally, in Uthman's (R.A.) days when different readers began to recite it differently, the caliph had several copies of it made and distributed them to the various countries which comprised the Islamic world. The modern edition of the Quran is the Uthman copy, which is considered the standard to which every other copy should conform.
Zaid ibn Thabit (R.A.), said:
“By Allah, If Abu Bakr (R.A.) had ordered to shift one of the mountains from its place it would not have been harder for me than what he had ordered me concerning the collection of the Quran.”
He continued,
“I started locating Quranic material and collecting it from parchments, scapula, leaf-stalks of date palms and from the memories of men.”
It is reported from Ali bin Abi Talib (R.A.), who said:
“The one who has the greatest reward amongst the people is Abu Bakr because he was unique in compiling the Quran.”

His Death and Burial Place:
Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.) died on Monday, 22nd of Jumada Al-Akhirah, 13th AH (August 23rd, 634 AD) after suffering from fever for 15 days during which he gave instructions that Umar bin Khattab (R.A.) should lead the prayers. There is a story which accuses the Jews of putting poison in his food, but it lacks authenticity. When Abu Bakr died, he was sixty-three years old and his caliphate had lasted for only two years and three months. During his illness, he was thinking of Islam and its future stability. After consulting with many of the well-known companions of the Prophet (S.A.W.), Abu Bakr (R.A.) decided to confer the caliphate on Umar bin Khattab (R.A.).
Then he called Umar (R.A.) and advised him on how to lead his people, ending with these words:
"If you follow my advice, nothing unknown will be more acceptable to you than death; but if you reject it, nothing unknown will be more frightening than death."
Before he died, Abu Bakr (R.A.) gave back everything he had taken from the public treasury during his caliphate. It is said that he did not bequeath any money at all. He left only a servant, a camel and a garment. His orders were that after his death the garment should be delivered to his successor. On seeing it, Umar wept and said:
"Abu Bakr (R.A.) has made the task of his successor very difficult."
Abu Bakr (R.A.) recommended to Aishah (R.A), his daughter and wife of Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.), to bury him beside the Prophet (S.A.W.). Abu Bakr (R.A.) was buried in Aishah's room, just beside the Prophet’s (S.A.W.) grave in Prophet’s Mosque (Masjid-e-Nabawi) in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. When he died, the funeral prayer was led by Umar (R.A.) and his grave was placed adjacent to the Prophet (S.A.W.). His grave was dug in such a way that his head was parallel to the shoulder of the Prophet (S.A.W.).
Upon hearing the sad news of Abu Bakr’s (R.A.) death, Ali bin Abi Talib (R.A.) rushed to his house. He made a long speech which he addressed to Abu Bakr (R.A.). Following are some words which Ali (R.A.) had said on the day of Abu Bakr’s (R.A.) death:
"O Abu Bakr (R.A.), you were the closest companion and friend of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.), you were a comfort to him; you were the one he trusted most. If he had a secret, he would tell it to you and if he needed to consult someone regarding a matter, he would consult you. You were the first of your people to embrace Islam and you were the sincerest of them in your faith. Your faith was stronger than any other person's as was the degree to which you feared Allah and you were wealthier than anyone else in terms of what you acquired from the religion of Allah. You cared most for both the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) and Islam. Of all people, you were the best Companion to the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.). You possessed the best qualities, you had the best past, you ranked highest and you were closest to him. And of all people, you resembled the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) the most in terms of his guidance and demeanor. Your ranking was higher than anyone else's and the Prophet (S.A.W.) honored you and held you in higher esteem than anyone else. On behalf of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) and Islam, may Allah reward you with the best of rewards. When the people disbelieved in the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.), you believed in him. Throughout Prophet’s (S.A.W.) life, you were both his eyes with which he saw, and his ears with which he heard. Allah has named you truthful in His book when He said:" “And the one who has brought the truth and [they who] believed in it - those are the righteous.” (SurahAl-Zamur 39:33)
People had gathered around Ali (R.A.) and listened to his speech until he was finished. Then they all cried with raised voices, and they all responded in unison to Ali’s speech saying, “Indeed you have spoken the truth."
Such was the peaceful death of Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.) after a lifelong struggle for the cause of Islam. Throughout the early years of Islam, Abu Bakr (R.A.) was a source of comfort and constant help for the Prophet (S.A.W.), always willing to sacrifice his wealth and his very life for the cause of Islam. Then when he Prophet (S.A.W.) died, Abu Bakr (R.A.) continued where the Prophet (S.A.W.) had left off. He further strengthened the foundations of the Muslim nation, first by fighting against and defeating the apostates and then by spreading Islam in some of the major conquests that took place during his caliphate.
May Allah be pleased with Abu Bakr (R.A.) and reward him with the best of rewards. AMEEN